400 million years ago in a time known as the Devonian Era or the fourth period of the Paleozoic Age,  North America and Northern Europe were joined together in a single continent named Laurentia situated at the Equator in the Western Hemisphere. The highest elevations of this continent were the Adirondack Mountains, the watershed from which emptied into the Catskill Sea. The climate and conditions would have been similar to the modern day Caribbean or Mesopotamia.



During this period Ireland and Eastern New York State were fused at what is now the location of the Hudson River. In the succeeding Carboniferous Era, characterized by the appearance of forests, finely disseminated carbon present in the initial muddy deposits conferred a distinct blue color to the sedimentation.

As Laurentia moved northward and the regolith below the Catskill Sea rose to form a plateaun, Eastern Europe separated from North America eventually creating among other features, the Palisades of the Hudson and the Cliffs of Moher on the western shores of Ireland. The Catskill Plateau gradually eroded away forming deep ravines to expose the extremely resilient and abundantly striated Bluestone substructure of the Delaware and Susquehanna Rivers’ watershed.


Many of these same conditions evolved in Southwestern Ireland, an area known today as the Province of Munster. This land was eventually populated by a virulent little people who had now migrated as far west as they could travel. With timber being scarce and ample stone outcroppings everywhere these early Celts soon developed their masonry skills. Through their efforts the craft, industry and art of stonework flourished in this hostile environment as evidenced by the clan meeting house depicted here, circa 600 AD. This beehive structure was built without the aid of mortar or cashel and remains intact today withstanding the harsh coastal climate of the North Atlantic for more than 1400 years.


By the mid 13th Century AD, descendants of the original dwellers, my ancestors, had risen to a position prominence in the Gaelic Legions.  As Lords of Munster, the O Mahony’s built many strongholds throughout the province as shelter from marauding vandals as well as the unforgiving coastal elements. This defensive perimeter wall runs from the depths of an upland lake about 400 feet the rim of the cliffs, 300 feet above the crashing Atlantic surf.